教学研讨

Songs and Poems

来源:    时间:2009-02-16    已阅读3302次
一、教学课型:综合技能课
    综合技能课是学生综合运用本单元所学语法、词汇和功能等知识,通过读和写等活动进行语言输出的课型。
    本课的教学目标包括读、听和写三种技能。教学任务有以下三项:
    1.阅读文章Songs and Poems,体会作者对歌曲和诗歌的喜爱之情;
    2.领会文章提出的学习和欣赏诗歌的建议,并在此基础上赏析Dust of Snow和R堙ht Here Waitin9两首诗;
    3.任选上述两首诗歌写一篇诗歌评论(A Poem Review)。
    通过以上三个任务,训练学生读、听和写的综合语言运用能力,提高其对英文诗歌的鉴赏水平及其自身的美学修养。
    二、教材分析
    1.教材内容(教材内容见课本)    2.教材处理
    新修订的SEFC教材所选的文章不仅题材广泛,而且体裁多样,涵盖了说明文、议论文、小说、戏剧和诗歌等,为学生学习语言提供了丰富多彩的素材。英语诗歌包含丰富的社会生活内容和艺术内涵,是极为精炼的语言艺术,也是语言学习不可或缺的部分。高二学生虽然积累了一定的英语基础知识,掌握了运用英语的基本技能,但很少接触英文诗歌,更谈不上对其进行鉴赏和评论。引导学生初步分析、鉴赏和探究诗歌,不仅能提高学生学习语言的兴趣和自信,还能使其欣赏英语语言之美,了解相关的文化背景,提升其文化修养和美学感悟能力。本课的教学设计就是对赏析和评论诗歌的一次尝试。
    教材提供了两首诗,即Dust of Snow和Right Here Waiting。相比而言,第二首诗的语句更简单,更接近学生的英语水平,表意也更明显,同时也是一首脍炙人口的英文歌曲,不少学生都能演唱。因此,教师可以先呈现并指导学生赏析这首诗,使学生消除对学习英文诗歌的畏难情绪,体味英语诗歌的优美;然后再赏析第一首诗,这样有利于调动学生的学习热情。另外,在课问播放学生耳熟能详的歌曲Right Here Waiting,也可以为学生学习英文诗歌作铺垫。
    3.教学目标
    (1)通过阅读短文,了解英文歌曲和诗歌对人们生活的影响以及欣赏诗歌的方法;
    (2)通过听录音和大声诵读诗歌,理解其大意,并欣赏其中的语言及意象之美;
    (3)通过写评论,从形式到内容进一步加深对诗歌理解;
    (4)激发学生的想像力,提高其文化素养。    4.教学重点和难点
    (1)引导学生说出欣赏诗歌的四大要素:押韵、平仄、意象及其表达的情感;
    (2)引导学生找出文章中有关欣赏诗歌的具体方法;
    (3)指导学生读懂诗歌的大意,体会诗歌的意象及其所表达的情感;
    (4)指导学生写作诗歌评论。    三、教学设计
    (一)总体思路
    本节课是在多媒体教学环境下实施的大容量、快节奏的课堂教学。教师首先让学生回忆本单元文章中关于诗歌与其他文学形式之区别的内容,引导学生总结诗歌和歌曲对人们生活的影响,接着让学生阅读短文,感受作者对歌曲和诗歌的热爱之情.并找出文中提到的阅读
和鉴赏诗歌的正确方法;之后引导学生用此方法赏析第二首诗Right Here Waiting,体会其意象及情感;然后指导学生分析第一首诗Dust of Snow。理解其语言结构、内涵和意象;并呈现教材提供的诗歌评论的一般形式,鼓励学生选取其中一首诗写一篇评论;最后由学生互评诗歌评论,教师总结并呈现优秀作品。
    通过以上由浅入深的引导,逐渐实现从语言的输入和内化到语言成果的输出,提高学生运用语言的能力。
    (二)教学过程
      Step 1. Leading-in
      1. From the previous reading passage English Poetry, we know poetry plays with sounds, words and grammar more than other forms of literature and it also calls up all the colors, feelings, experiences and curious images of a dream world. So reading poetry is interesting and some people keep it as their hobby.
      2. Read the passage and find out the answers to the questions.
      (1) What are the writer's hobbies?
      (2) What does the writer think of good songs?
      (3) For what reason does the writer enjoy reading poetry?
    【设计说明】
    本单元主要的阅读文章题为English Poetry。文章涉及英文诗歌的种类、发展史和诗人,还特别指出了诗歌作为一种长盛不衰的艺术形式与其他文学形式的不同之处。教师让学生带着问题快速阅读短文,了解其大意,旨在让学生回顾上节课所学的内容,并自然地引出本课的话题。带领学生进入一个梦幻般的诗歌世界。
      Step 2. Understanding the reading
      1. According to your own experience and understanding, what are the proper ways of appreciating poems? (引导学生说出以下关键词: image, feelings, rhyme and rhythm。)
      2. Scan the passage and find out in which
paragraph the writer gives us advice on how to enjoy poems.
      3. Understand the guidance on how to appreciate songs and poems.
   【设计说明】
    该教学步骤的第一个环节采用Brainstorm的形式,既联系学生的生活经验,又让教师了解学生对该话题的认知水平,启发学生思考并找出欣赏诗歌的基本要素:意象、情感、韵律、节奏和分行等;然后让学生从短文中找出作者的建议,并与教师一道总结鉴赏诗歌的正确方法:朗读、背诵、忽略生词、注重押韵和平仄。
      Step 3. Appreciate the poem Right Here Waiting Now that you have known some tips on how to enjoy poems, why not have a try? Here are two poems: one is Right Here Waiting and the other is Dust of Snow.
      1. First, let's look at the one written by Richard Marx, which is also a very popular song. Please enjoy the song with your eyes closed and think of the image it can remind you of.
      2. (After listening) Please draw the image you have got in your mind on a piece of paper. If you are not good at drawing, just write down a few words about your feeling and the image.3. Share some interesting pictures and ideas with the whole class.
      4. Analyze the song to help the students know it better.
      (1) What information is revealed in the first four lines?
      (2) What attitude or feeling is expressed in the fifth and sixth lines?
      (3) What is the change of attitude in the last four lines?
【设计说明】
    该部分教学设计的总体目标是让学生学会运用刚归纳出的方法读诗、析诗和赏诗。首先从闭目聆听开始,让学生从优美的音乐和动人的歌词中体会作者(或歌手)的情感和所表达的意境;然后让学生尝试描述头脑里出现的画面,并与他人用英语交流彼此的感受;最后为了让学生更清楚地把握作者对情感细致而独特的感受,引导学生体会从“If I see you next to never.How can I say forever?”到“Wherever you go,whatever you do,1 will be right here waiting for you;Whatever it takes or how my heart breaks,1 will be right here waiting for you的情感变化,细细品味诗句的含意。
    教师在教学此诗时,应着重分析其内在的艺术性,特别是对诗的意象的选择和意境的建构进行探索,启发学生展开想像,使其心境与诗境相互交融,由此产生情感上的共鸣。
    Step 4.Appreciating the poem:Dust of Snow
    Here is another poem Dust of Snow written by Robert Frost.
    1.Read the poem aloud again and again.
    2.Try to find out the key sentence structure in the poem.(Actually there is only one sentence in this poem.)
    3.Group work:Analyze the poem together
by discussing the following questions:    (1)What is the poem about?
    (2)What feelings,experiences Or images does
this poem call up?
    (3)How does the author’s mood change? Is it from good to bad or from bad to good? Why?    4.Listen to the tape,focus on the rhythm and the rhyme of the poem and find out the pattern of it
【设计说明】
    教师首先让学生大声朗读本诗,尽可能领会其意思。虽然全诗只有一句话,但由于生词 Crow,hemlock tree,rue的干扰,加之句子结构复杂,学生初读之后几乎不知所云。教师的引导旨在让学生明白本诗的结构,分析其句子成分,找出诗句的主干部分,即“The way has given my heart a change of mood and saved some part of a day I had rued”。修饰成分包括 the way的定语(a crow shook down on me the dust of snow from a hemlock tree)和a day的定语(I had rued)。这样,学生才会清楚诗歌的结构。
    然后,教师指导学生分析本诗所要表达的意象、情感以及诗人情感的变化:from bad to good及其缘由:a crow shook down on me the dust of snow from a hemlock tree。通过讨论,学生对这首诗的大意会有更清晰的理解。
    欣赏诗歌的另一重要环节是让学生体会诗歌的声音、韵律、节奏和分行等语言特点,体味诗歌语言的艺术性,让学生聆听录音,注意每句结尾单词的发音。学生会发现这首诗的押韵落在crow,snow;me,tree;heart,part;mood, rued上,并总结出这首诗的韵律为:
The way a crow                               A
Shook down on me                             B
The dust of snow                             A
From a hemlock tree                          B
 
Has given my heart                           C
A change of mood                             D
And saved some part                          C
Of a day I had rued                          D
    Step 5.Writing a poem review
HOW do you like the two poems above? What are the reasons for your tikes or dislikes?   
1.1 would like you to write a review on either of the two poems we have just learned.Let  US see what should be included in your writing.
   2. Look at the chart in the book and make sure what should be dealt with in each paragraph.
 
Paragraph 1: Describe what the poem is about.                  
Paragraph 2: Describe feeling the what images gives you. See in your mind and what feelings the poem gives you?
Paragraph 3: Describe what you think the poem is about when you think about it more deeply. Also, give your opinions about the poem.                              
 3. Choose one poem from the two, and write a review about it in your exercise book within eight minutes.
    【设计说明】
    经过以上步骤,学生逐步认识了英文诗歌、歌曲与人们生活的联系;了解了阅读和欣赏诗歌的正确方法;感知了诗歌语言简洁和优美的魅力。本环节让学生根据上表提供的提纲写出对其中一首诗歌的理解,包括作者描绘出的意象以及所表达的情感和思绪,并写出自己对它的总体评价。学生将自己的思想和感受用文字表达出来,有利于锻炼其想像力和创造力,体验创造的喜悦,激发学习的积极性和自信心。教师让学生按照所给的提纲思路,在7~8分钟内完成写作任务,这也有利于训练学生敏捷的思维能力,并养成良好的学习习惯。
      Step 6. Commenting on the writing
      It's time to enjoy your own creative writing now. You can assess your partner's writing by using the following recommended criteria:
                   criteria for a Poem Review
Organization  Is the writing well-organized? (It's best to follow the suggested format.)            
Language use        Are the ideas clearly stated?             
 Are there any errors of agreement, tense, number,articles, pronouns, etc?
              Are there any effective complex constructions?
            
    Basics   Are there any errors of spelling, punctuation or capitalization?
            
   Content   Does the writer tell us what the poem is mainly about?
Does the writer describe the image he sees in his her mind?
       Does the writer express his /her opinions about it?
      1. Pair work: Exchange your writing with your partner. Appreciate what he / she has writ- ten and at the same time help him / her to
Correct the errors in it.
      2. Let's share two reviews together, having the criteria in mind.    
 Review One:     
Title: Right Here Waiting
      Name of the poet:  Richard Marx
      After I read the poem Right Here Waiting, an image comes into my mind: A man standing on a cliff beside the sea in the wind is looking towards the other side across the ocean.  He seems to be seeking someone he loves. However, he is just waiting there for his beloved one. I am really moved by this scene. I can dearly feel the man's sadness and expectation, and also his deep love.
      This Poem is quite a success because it has very well shown us the love that will never fade. True love is the most precious emotion, and that's why this poem has touched millions of people and will move even more.
      Review Two:
      Title: Dust of Snow
      Name of the poet: Robert Frost           
The poem Dust of Snow is about how nature affects one's mood. It's written by Robert Frost., Reading the poem, I always Come up with, and an image in which there stands a man under a hemlock tree.  The world is all white with snow. Silent and tender, the snow fell down to the man's shoulders, comforting him with the' warmest kisses. For some reason, the man stood there, silent and depressed, thinking about his miserable experience or the wasted yesterday. Not having heard any comforting words, he was comforted by the crow, the snow, and the hem- lock tree. Gradually, his bad mood is replaced and his mind is filled with quietness and peace.       I can feel the poet's change of mood and that's what moves me most. This poem seems to express the message that when you face nature, unhappiness can be driven away.
 face nature, unhappiness can be driven away.
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